What is sour service? Sour service is referred to exploration and production environments in oil and gas that have enough H2S that could cause “CRACKING” of metallic materials. The oil and gas industry recognize sour service as one of the … Continue reading What is Sour Service in OIL & GAS?
This article outlines the minimum requirements for manufacturing of induction pipe bending according to ASME B31.8, ASME 16.49 and ISO 15590-1. Induction Bending is formed by passing pipe through an induction bending machine. This machine uses an induction coil to heat a narrow band of the pipe material. As the pipe is pushed through the machine, a bend with the desired radius of curvature is produced. The heated material just beyond the induction coil is quenched with a water spray on the outside surface of the pipe. Thermal expansion of the narrowly heated section of pipe is restrained due to … Continue reading What is Hot Induction Bends and Inspection guides.
This article will guide you about the general specification for steel line pipe and pipeline from the requirements for manufacturing, testing, inspecting, marking, and shipping of steel line pipe for gas and liquid pipelines for offshore applications at purchasing stage or vendor document review process. The following documents are considered part of this specification. Use the edition of each referenced document in effect on the date of the publication of this specification. API SPEC 5L Specification of Line Pipe API RP 5L1 Recommended Practice for Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe API RP 5LW Recommended Practice for Transportation of Line Pipe … Continue reading Certification of Line-pipe for oil and gas service
Why are shear stress equations necessary? This article looks at some examples of shear stress equations: average shear stress, beam shear. What are the basics of shear stress? Whenever two materials rub against or slide over each other, there is shear. While normal stress results from the force applied perpendicular to the surface of a material, shear stress occurs when force is applied parallel to the surface of the material. A common example include the cutting of paper with scissors. Shear stress differs across materials and cross-sections, and is measured using a set of formulas called the shear stress equations. … Continue reading What is Shear Stress?
This question has been made through every year when the engineer concerning about ferrous or non-ferrous metal during making of welding procedure, permanent joint qualification or corrosion calculation. This article gives an overview of ferrous metals, what they are and how they’re made. There are several common types of ferrous metals such as mild steel, stainless steel and cast iron. Ferrous metals are highly versatile. Read this article to learn about their applications and advantages and disadvantages of ferrous metals Did you know? Iron is the most abundant element on earth. The earth’s core consists of an iron-nickel alloy that makes … Continue reading Is Stainless Steel ferrous metal?
Ever wanted to know more about the Galvanic Series? Read on to find out about what it is and how to use it to analyze the compatibility of joining (fastening) metals. In this article, we’ll look at an example to illustrate the use of the galvanic table. You can also learn more about overcoming potentially compatibility issues between metals. What exactly is the Galvanic Series? The Galvanic Series, also called the electro-potential series, lists metals in the order of their nobility. (Noble metals are those that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation.) When two metals are immersed in an electrolyte, … Continue reading What is Galvanic corrosion between two different materials?
At upstream process (PLEM, SSIV, SSCV) to Riser, in case of emergency shutdown (ESD) or depressurizing (process shutdown – PSD), the BDV valve automatically/remotely opens to release high pressure fluid flow to flare system. The following are guidance for developing the BDV (Blowdown Valve) to flare system: BDV Sizing and Its Line Sizing to Flare-system The BDV size is same with the inlet and outlet line size. How to determine the appropriate line size? You must determine the maximum flowrate through this BDV line during depressurizing. Hence, you have to conduct depressurizing study-workshop at first. Based on the maximum flow … Continue reading What is Blow Down Valve and Sizing BDV?
High-temperature corrosion is not a form of electrochemical corrosion that require a liquid electrolyte cell. The high-temperature corrosion mechanism causing by metals react directly with gaseous atoms in the atmosphere rather than ions in solution. Sometimes, this type of damage … Continue reading What is high temperature corrosion?
Caliper Pig – Introduction; Caliper Pig is a device (Tool) used for monitoring the Pipeline, especially with the underground or under water (Subsea) by Caliper Pig is then inserted into the tube (In-line Inspection) and will be run by the compressed Flow of Fluid. Caliper Pig will have legs or Mechanical Arm to measure Inside Diameter of Pipe. Surrounding with an Odometer attached to the Caliper Pig to run inside of the pipe. Caliper Pig or Geometry Pig can check dents (deformation) and roundness (ovality) of the Pipeline throughout the length of the pipeline by Mechanical Arm measurements include the ability to show the location of Defect from the Odometer. Lets see examples of the results of the survey by Caliper Pig for Underground Pipeline. Caliper Pig is measured Inside Diameter of Pipe and display as 3D … Continue reading What is Caliper Pig – Pipeline inspection