A dynamic compressor is the most famous and common type of compressor. A dynamic compressor is a continuous rotation of a rotating machine in which a high-speed element passes air through the element and presses the speed of the head part on the rotating element and partly on the diffuser or fixed pallets.
Unlike positive displacement compressors, dynamic compressors operate at constant pressure and are classified according to axial or radial design. The functioning of this compressor is disturbed by surrounding such as variations in the inlet temperature.
During dynamic compression, the air is drawn in between the blades of the compression driver, which rotate rapidly when accelerated. The gas is then discharged through the diffuser, where the force of the movement is converted into static pressure. Depending on the initial direction of the airflow, these compressors are called radial or axial compressors and are all designed for large volume flow rates. A dynamic compressor is often called a turbocharger because it can produce significant horsepower.
Types of Dynamic Compressors
The dynamic compressor has the following major types:
1) Centrifugal compressor
Centrifugal compressors are also called turbo compressors. In a centrifugal compressor, the liquid is supplied from the inlet, and then the device transfers energy to the liquid so that the liquid receives internal energy and the internal energy is statically delivered to the liquid: movement pressure and force, i.e., high flow velocity.
In this dynamic compressor, the angular motion transmitted by the impeller to the working fluid is constantly converted into static pressure, the required pressure increases.
Centrifugal compressors are current stabilizing devices, so they are less prone to vibration and noise.
In a centrifugal compressor, the working fluid, i.e., air, accidentally enters the compressor in the eye of the impeller. It then releases it substantially outwards, or it can be said that the compressed air leaves the compressor in a radial direction towards the ‘external.
2) Axial Compressor
The axial compressor is a dynamic compressor. These compressors initially allow the liquid to reach high speeds but then limit the flow of air. This increases the gas pressure. In addition to axial compressors, centrifugal compressors and mixed-current compressors are other types of dynamic compressors.
In an axial compressor, the gas enters and exits the axial compressor. The compression process takes place in two stages.
The flow is accelerated by passing through the blades or rotors.
The flow generated by the stator blades is therefore limited. Converts the moving force into static pressure force.
The axial compressor comprises the rotor blades connected to the rotor and the stator connected to the body. The axial airflow through rotors and rotating stators increases their final pressure.
Components of a Dynamic compressor
1) Inlet casing with accelerating nozzle
The function of the inlet casing is to accelerate the liquid from its initial state to the inlet of the inlet guide blade and create a constant velocity for the eye. The inlet flange is symmetrical with the shaft, and the inlet pipe is shaped like a simple connecting nozzle. The outlet of the inlet chamber is called the impeller eye.
2) Inlet guide vane (IGV)
The function of the inlet guide vane is to direct the flow of water in the desired direction towards the inlet of the impeller. The incoming guide blade must be selected to obtain the smallest relative Mach number at the end of the eye.
3) Impeller or Runner
The purpose of this component is to raise the pressure level of the gas by rising the angular motion of the gas to rotate the gas.
Both the static pressure and the fluid velocity increase with the impeller. The propeller van helps to move the energy from the runner to the gas. The hub is the rotating surface of the A-B impeller. The shield is a curved surface C – D, which constitutes the outer limit of the fluid flow.
(The impeller cap eliminates tip leakage but also increases frictional losses.)
The impeller can be attached by attaching the vane to the blade end (called a vane impeller) or without closing the gap between the blade end and the fixed wall.
This component of the dynamic compressor consists of several fixed bypass channels, through which the air is slowed down, and the static pressure is consequently increased.
Advantages of Dynamic Compressors
- Compared to other compressors, it is completely flexible and easy to build.
- Since this compressor does not require a special foundation, it has high efficiency and high energy reliability characteristics.
- They are composed of a small number of friction components and are not completely oily in nature.
- Produces a higher-pressure ratio than the axial compressor.
Disadvantages of Dynamic compressors
- They create limited pressure and are not very suitable for compression.
- Because they work at a relatively high speed, they need to install lighting or lights.
- They are very sensitive to problems such as stagnation and breathing.
- The dynamic compressor has cavitation problems.
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