Why are shear stress equations necessary? This article looks at some examples of shear stress equations: average shear stress, beam shear. What are the basics of shear stress? Whenever two materials rub against or slide over each other, there is shear. While normal stress results from the force applied perpendicular to the surface of a material, shear stress occurs when force is applied parallel to the surface of the material. A common example include the cutting of paper with scissors. Shear stress differs across materials and cross-sections, and is measured using a set of formulas called the shear stress equations. … Continue reading What is Shear Stress?
Today plant maintenance projects using Profile RT for monitoring Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) by shooting x-rays through Insulation occupies Pipe Fitting , which is expected to be wet and causing CUI. The test results are as shown in the picture below: Continue reading Profile RT for Corrosion under insulation
Why does a Steam Heat Exchanger or any Steam Heater have a Steam Trap: 1st reason: On Outlet line, Steam-out of the Heat Exchanger may also heat or condensated at Steam outlet, therefore, a Steam Trap at Outlet line of Heat Exchanger for trap the Steam to condense into water before forwarding it to condensate main line (Saving Steam). 2nd reason: The Steam on the Heat Exchanger may be Water Condensate contaminated, so they have to set Steam Trap with Steam Inlet line to prevent damage from Two-phase flow steam erosion occurred in Heat Exchanger. (Corrosion/Errosion Protection) Example of Steam … Continue reading Steam trap design in piping system
RT Film Density Definition; Intensity (Density) of the Film from the Radiography Testing (RT) refers to the darkness of the RT film as measured by the amount of light that can penetrate RT film came to light that indicates that the Film with density is low, but if. Low light means that the film has a high density. RT Film Density Measurement; Measuring the intensity (Density) of the Film from the Radiography Testing (RT) can be achieved. Using a Densitometer to measure the amount of light that penetrates directly through the RT film, the device will display the number of film intensity Use Standard Film with different levels of intensity (Step Wedge Comparison Film) to compare with the intensity of our RT film … Continue reading What is RT film Density ?
On the drawing Pdesign: 16kg/cm2 and MAWP: 26 kg/cm2 User defines Pd: as above. t calculated: 4mm T selected: 12mm and second trial for formula founded P: 26 kg/cm2. Then designer says it is MAWP and equals to 26, which … Continue reading Design Pressure Vs MAWP (API, ASME)
A Simple Pressure Safety Valve Calibration Procedure One of the simplest but most important instruments that I encounter which are used not for displaying or monitoring the process, but for safety, it is the pressure safety valves. When I was just starting out as a cal tech, looking at it installed in a tank makes me curious about its usage. You cannot see any actions or output display as a sign of its operation. In this post, I will present the following: What is a safety valve? Its difference with a relief valve Why do we need to calibrate a … Continue reading Pressure Safety Valve Calibration, Maintenance
To prevent leakage of the loading fluid, an optical precision on the order of three light beads/bands [0.0000348 in. (0.0008838 mm)] must be maintained in the flatness of seating surfaces on metal-seated pressure relief valves (see API 527). Imperfections in … Continue reading PR Valve Seat flatness with 3 light bands
What is the safe working load (SWL)? Safe Working Load (SWL) is the limiting safety factor to lift and carry any load safely. It must be clearly marked on any lifting device (hoist, lifts, lifting machines, and lifting tackles). Marking System of Safe Working Load Lifting equipment should have a tally plate indicating the Safe Working Load. The tally plate also indicates the identification number which can be mentioned in the test certificate held by the user. It should also indicate the date of the last inspection. Safe Working Load ( Or WLL) of different types of sling are given in … Continue reading What is Load test Safety Factor and Proof Test for Lifting devices?
The ISO 9001 is a quality management system defined by a set of specific standards that helps businesses run as smoothly as possible. One of the clauses under this system, Monitoring and Measuring Resources, refers to the requirements of conformity that are set for all products and services. What is monitoring and measuring resources for ISO 9001? The process of monitoring and measuring resources for ISO 9001 includes making sure that all equipment is valid, up to date, and working properly. All measurements that are taken must be accurate and recorded for monitoring purposes. Monitoring and measuring resources, as outlined … Continue reading Where is calibration mentioned in ISO 9001-2015