Typical welding deposition rate

When welding using a fusion process, the edges of a component are melted together to form weld metal.

Table: Heat source, mode of shielding, thickness range and metal deposition rates for various fusion processes

ProcessHeat sourceShieldParent 
metal 
thickness mm
Deposition 
rate kg/hr
Arc
MMAArcGas/flux1-1001-4
MIGArcGas0.5-1001-8
TIGArcGas0.1-1001-4
SAWArcFlux5-2505-20
ES/EGResistance/arcFlux/gas5-2505-20
StudArc4-20
Gas
OxyfuelFlameGas0.6-101-2
Power beam
LaserRadiationGas0.2-25
EBElectronsVacuum0.2-250
Resistance
Spot/SeamResistance0.2-10
Thermit
ThermitChemicalGas10-100

Table 2 shows heat source, mode of shielding, thickness range and metal deposition rates for a range of fusion processes. Although fusion welding is one of the simplest joining techniques, problems likely to occur include porosity in the weld metal, and cracking in either the weld or heat affected zone (HAZ). Porosity is avoided by ensuring adequate shielding of the weld pool and, for materials such as aluminum, the addition of filler wire.

Consideration of the joint design and the chemistry of the weld metal will prevent weld metal cracking. HAZ cracking which might be caused by hydrogen, is avoided by using low hydrogen consumables and controlling the heat input and the rate of cooling of the parent metal.

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