A submersible pump is an equipment that pushes the fluid to the surface instead of pulling it out. This pump has a sealed motor coupled with the pump’s body that pushes the liquid to the surface. Submersible pumps are mainly used for pumping water. They push water to the surface by converting the rotational movement (speed) into kinetic energy, and the runner blades further convert this kinetic energy into pressure.
Usually, a submersible pump doesn’t need priming because it fully immerses in the water. And also, this pump doesn’t have cavitation problems. But the repair and maintenance of this centrifugal pump are challenging because it fully submerses into the water.
These pumps are helpful in numerous conditions because they stop cavitation in the pump.
Submersible pumps have many uses in a variety of industries. For example, single-stage submersible pumps are used for industrial, drainage, and dirt applications, while multistage pumps are suitable for industrial, municipal, commercial, and private applications.
Submersible Water Pump working
The working principle of a submersible pump differs slightly from that of a jet pump. This is because the jet pump delivers liquid through pull force while the submersible pump delivers liquid by pushing it. A submersible pump is an equipment that is attached to a fully sealed motor. A submersible pump is a famous kind of centrifugal pump. Therefore, the principle of operation is very similar to that of other types of centrifugal pumps. The submersible pump is completely submerged in water.
A submersible pump works in the following way:
- An electric motor uses to provide power to the impeller of the pump. The impeller is connected with the motor through a shaft. This impeller rotates according to the rotation of the shaft.
- As the impeller starts rotation, a vacuum generates in the impeller’s eye.
- Due to the creation of a vacuum, water begins to enter into the pump through the foot valve.
- As the water enters into the pump, it hits the impeller blades.
- The impeller blades rotate with the movement of the impeller.
- These blades provide kinetic energy to the water and increase its speed.
- After passing through the impeller area, the water enters into the diffuser.
- This diffuser converts the water speed into pressure and increases the speed of the water.
- After this, the pump pushes the pressurized water toward the surface, and water discharges from the delivery valve.
Types of Submersible Pump
There are many types of submersible pumps, but the most significant types are given below:
1) Stainless Steel Pumps
These types of submersible pumps work better than cast iron pumps. This pump is called a stainless-steel pump because it is completely covered with stainless steel. It fully submerges in the water during its operation.
This pump has extraordinary acid resistance. These pumps can also pump hot water or slightly acidic water. Water sources such as well can be protected by their unique design, and freshwater may pump frequently.
2) Oil Filled Pumps
This pump utilizes an oil-soaked electric motor. These pumps also use for applications such as water supply to residential areas, well water lifting, drainage systems, mountain water supplies, service water, irrigation of agricultural areas and hills, etc. In this pump, oil injection requires to cool the heating motor. The oil of this pump does not freeze so that it can be used in cooled weather areas. These have easy installation and restoration. They use to send clean water to lakes, rivers, or pools.
3) Bottom Suction Pumps
The bottom suction pumps are mainly used in drainage, mining, swimming pools, rivers, and lakes. There is a guide sleeve under the pump. This type of pump sucks in water from the well bottom and thus effectively makes sure the high-quality cooling operation of the electric motor. These are expedition and emergency pumps. These pumps are easier to install than other types of pumps. This submersible pump has a high delivery head.
4) Deep Well Submersible Pump
These pumps are the most popular type of submersible pump. A deep well pump utilizes to pump water from a well to your house or the desired location. It is completely submerged in well water. Because this pump uses in wells, therefore it is often referred to as a well submersible pump.
Deep well pumps can also be used for municipal applications. Electric motors are connected to the housing of these pumps that run underwater. Once these pumps start working, they need to be completely immersed in water. Therefore, these pumps can also pump fresh or weakly acidic water.
5) Water Cooler Submersible Well Pump
Submersible water cooler pump most widely uses in residential water, industrial, agricultural land irrigation, and other applications. Like the other submersible pumps, this pump also works underwater. The pump motor also operates underwater. Freshwater can inject to cool the motor. These types of pumps are appropriate for applications where high-quality water is required.
Components of Submersible Pump
A submersible pump has the following major components:
- Check Valve
- Impeller Blades
1) Check Valve
A check valve is a one-way valve. It permits the only forward flow of the fluid and prevents backflow of the fluid. The position and number of the check valves vary according to the depth of the well pump configuration.
An impeller is a rotating component of the submersible pump. It connects with an electric motor through a shaft. It rotates with the movement of the shaft. The impeller has more than one blade that also rotates with the impeller rotation.
3) Impeller Blades
These blades are fixed on the pump impeller. The impeller blades use to increase the speed of the fluid. These blades provide K.E to the fluid and increase its speed.
A diffuser is a part of the submersible pump that uses to convert the speed of the fluid into pressure.
A casing prevents the fluid from splashing outside. It also prevents the internal parts of the pump if a heavyweight fall on it.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Submersible Pumps
A submersible pump has the following advantages and disadvantages:
- A submersible pump doesn’t have cavitation problems
- It doesn’t need initial priming
- It can regulate liquids as well as solids
- This pump has high efficiency than a jet pump
- It has adequate internal pressure to pump the fluid
- It has quiet operation
- This type of centrifugal pump has a complex maintenance
- Because it completely submerses in the water, therefore, in case of any part failure, it has a very hard repairing
- It has high cost than a jet pump
- The pump seal weakens with the passage of time