What is a Reciprocating Pump?

A reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump wherein a certain volume of liquid is gathered in a closed quantity and discharged using pressure for the specified utility. The reciprocating works on the principle of pushing the fluid through the piston, which rotates in a closed mounting cylinder.


1) Piston Pump

The piston pump is a positive displacement pump in which the traditional excessive pressure pump rotates on the piston.

2) Plunger Pump

The plunger pump is also a pump with an additional running quantity, wherein an excessive pressure seal is connected, and a smooth cylindrical piston passes through the seal.

3) Diaphragm Pump

A diaphragm pump is a constructive fluid pump that uses a rubber, thermoplastic, or Teflon diaphragm with a pressure valve touch on each side of the diaphragm.

4) Double Acting Reciprocating Pump

In a double-acting reciprocating pump, each stroke of the piston performs the functions of suction and transmission.

The suction stroke on one aspect of the piston and the other side has a feed stroke.

Main Parts of Reciprocating Pump

  1. Suction Pipe
  2. Suction Valve
  3. Delivery Pipe
  4. Delivery Valve
  5. Cylinder
  6. Piston and Piston Rod
  7. Crank and Connecting Rod
  8. Strainer
  9. Air Vessel

Suction Pipe

A suction pipe uses to suck water from the water source into the tank.

Suction Valve

The suction valve is an irreversible valve via which only one-manner flow is viable. It is opened all through liquid suction and closed at some stage in discharge.

Delivery Pipe

This is a pipe that is used to deliver water from a cylinder to the desired place. It connects the pump outlet to the water tank.


Empty metallic or chrome steel cylinder. Inside this cylinder, piston and piston rod are located.

Piston and Piston Rod

A plunger is a solid cylindrical aspect that actions back and forth inner a hollow cylinder to suck and supply fluid—the piston movements immediately due to the piston shaft.

Crankshaft and Connecting Rod

A circular hard disk connected to a power supply, together with a motor, engine, and many others. This disk is known as a crankshaft. The crankshaft and the piston are related by way of a connecting shaft; as a purpose of this rotational motion of the crank turns into a straight motion of the piston.


At the give up of the suction line, a filter is provided to prevent solid particles from getting into the water source within the cylinder.

Air Vessel

The suction and supply strains are connected by air vessels to cast off head resistance and make sure a high discharge.


The reciprocating pump is quite simple to start and requires an I.C. This positive displacement compressor works in the following way:

  1. The suction pressure is furnished by using the piston so that the liquid can rise or be sucked below high pressure.
  2. Then compression strain is required for the strong strain of the fluid.
  3. At this level, the piston has to carry out a couple of responsibilities so properly compressed the fluid, and its pressure can upward push to the specified stage.
  4. The inlet and outlet valves are opened at a consistent pressure set by way of the producer.
  5. In the single-acting pump, the piston sucks from one side and best moves from the other aspect. However, in a double-acting pump, every stroke has the function of suction and discharge at the same time.

Note: –

  • A reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump that includes transferring the fluid in one route while not transporting it again.
  • This pump usually starts with the outlet valve open; otherwise, pressure will build up and wreck the pipe or pump.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Reciprocating Pumps

Advantages of Reciprocating Pumps

  1. The piston pump offers a high suction head.
  2. This pump does not require priming.
  3. Also, very good.
  4. High water pressure done.
  5. It has a consistent exit discharge.

Disadvantages of Reciprocating Pumps:

  1. This pump demands extraordinary maintenance and high protection.
  2. The flow is not strong.
  3. The go with the flow is too small and can’t be used for high-flow functions.
  4. Heavier and feature a bigger shape.
  5. The initial production price may be very excessive.
  6. More components imply a better advance cost.
  7. Maintenance charges are high.
  8. No uniform torque.
  9. Low discharge ability.
  10. Viscous beverages are tough to pump.

Reciprocating pump applications:

  1. It uses in oil and gas enterprises.
  2. Power generation.
  3. Petrochemical and Refinery.
  4. Sugar enterprise.
  5. Soap and detergent industries.
  6. Food and drink.
  7. Water Treatment Plant.

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